Inverted Commas and Underlining or italics must be used for the appropriate titles of texts cited.
(ed.) or (eds.) means editor or editors of a book and comes after the author's name
(i.e. where an author has compiled a series of articles from various
writers into a book).
et al means
and others. This is used when there are more than two
authors or editors to a book. You write only the first two authors'
names, followed by "et al".
p. and pp. means page and pages.
Capital Letters are used for the
first letter of each main word in titles (and of course, for names).
In order to avoid deceiving the reader (and yourself) into thinking
that words, expressions, and ideas gained from someone else are
your own, you must, each time that you use someone else's ideas,
insert a footnote to show the source of your information. Therefore
you should footnote:
a direct quotation (and enclose it in inverted commas);
the thoughts, opinions and conclusions of others, even when
you express them in your own words through summary and paraphrase.
Procedure to follow:
1. Number the footnotes consecutively (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.)
2. Place the footnote just above the end of the last word of the
text which you are acknowledging.
3. Place the footnote number and the details of the source at the
bottom of the page. Alternatively, you can include a separate page
at the end of your essay or assignment or research paper.
4. The first time you acknowledge someone's work, write the author's
name, the title of the source and the page number/s. For example:
5. Ibid is used if the same work is
referred to in the next footnote. For example:
6. If another work (as in footnote 3 below) intervenes between the
two references to the same text, write the author's surname, followed
by . For example:
Here is an example for structuring footnotes:
1. A bibliography is a complete account of every
text that has been consulted in your investigation and, or, research
whether it was used or not in your work. The following rules
apply for structuring your bibliography:
Books: Write the author's name, the
title of the book, the place published, the publisher, and the year
Magazines/Journals: Write the author's
name, the title of the article, the title of the magazine/journal,
the volume number (and number if it has one), the date, and page
Newspapers: Write the author's name,
the title of the article, the title of the newspaper, the date,
and the page numbers.
Radio or Television Broadcast: Write
the title of the broadcast, the programme, channel, and the date.
Films: Write the title of the film,
the director's name, the film company, and year the film was produced.
Websites: Write full details such
as the subject title, author and date or year (if provided).
2. When writing your bibliography, it must be
organised in alphabetical order by the author's surname: