©Glynis Steward

Did the punishment fit the crime?







The Task

The Process





Webquest created by Dianne Ruffles with Josie Belvedere

Created June 2004

Updated August 2011



General resources
1. Babylonian and Egyptian times
2. Ancient Greek and Roman times
3. Early Middle Ages - 1200-1450
4. Elizabethan Era - 1450-1750
5. Industrial times – 1750-1900
6. Ancient India and China
7. Aboriginal Tribal Law

Print resources
Braithwaite, John. Crime, shame and reintegration. 364.601 BRA
Culpin, Christopher. Crime and punishment through time. 364.9 CUL
Healey, Kaye. Crime & punishment. 364.994 CRI
Lyons, Lewis. The history of punishment. 364.67 LYO
Rothman, David J. The Oxford history of the prison : the practice of punishment in Western society. 365.9 OXF
Scott, George Riley. A history of torture. 364.67 SCO
Wilson, Paul R. Issues in crime, morality and justice. 364.994 ISS

Learn History: Crime punishment and protest thorough time c1450-2004
Ideas about crime, and approaches to law enforcement and punishment in: Ancient Rome; Anglo-Saxon England; Medieval England to c1450. Good visual page. Includes timelines, plenty of pictures. Related to GCSE history
Crime and punishment
Teaching resources from the UK's National Archives Learning Curve. Covers crime, prevention, and punishment in four eras: before 1450, 1450-1750, 20th Century. Based on real documents. Good teaching notes
Crimes and criminals of the past
Links to short encyclopaedic articles, e.g. instruments of torture, invention of the guillotine, etc.
Law Buzz.com
Stories of the law, famous trials, trials without justice, etc.
Justice and law
Very brief introduction to early forms & classical civilisations – good for illustrating key terms
Eyewitness to history; history through the eyes of those who lived it
Searchable data base of British history, well presented encyclopaedic-style articles.
Criminal justice history resources
Extensive collection of links
History of Punishment
History of punishment

1. Babylonian and Egyptian times
Print Resources
Dunan, Marcel (ed.) Larousse encyclopedia of ancient and medieval history. 930 LAR
Hawkes, Jacquetta. Prehistory and the beginnings of civilization. 930.1 HAW

You be the judge on Hammurabi’s code
Designed for grades 4-8 – some interesting ideas
Code of Hammurabi [portions only]
The Avalon Project : Babylonian Law--The Code of Hammurabi
The Code of Hammurabi
Ancient Law
nternet Ancient History Sourcebook
Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Ancient Legal Texts
Web links for Western Legal Tradition

2. Ancient Greek and Roman times
Print Resources
Andrewes, Antony. Greek society. 938 AND
Boardman, John. Greece and the hellenistic world. 938 GRE
Boardman, John. The Roman world. 938 ROM
Green, Peter. A concise history of Ancient Greece to the close of the Classical era. 938 GRE
Hennessy, Dianne. Studies in ancient Greece. 938.02 STU
Markel, Rita J. Your travel guide to ancient Rome. 937.02MAR
Rodgers, Nigel. The rise and fall of ancient Rome. 937.02 ROD

The ascent of Rome
Visually uninteresting, but good information
Living in the city of Rome
Some interesting cases revealed in ancient writings & artefacts
Origin of Lady of Justice
Possible explanation of the justice “logo”
The suicide of Socrates
Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Rome
Internet Ancient History Sourcebook
The Ancient World

3. Middle Ages - 1200-1450
Print resources
Comte, Suzanne. Everyday life in the Middle Ages. 940.1 COM
Dunan, Marcel (ed.) Larousse encyclopedia of ancient and medieval history. 930 LAR
McKitterick, Rosamond (ed.). The Times medieval world. 909.07 TIM
Mundy, John H. & Peter Riesenberg. The medieval town. 940.1 MUN
Southern, R.W. The making of the middle ages. 940.1 SOU
Thorndike, Lynn. The History of Medieval Europe. 940.1 THO

Medieval history – Barbarian codes
Includes links to Anglo-Saxon Law, Capitulary of Charlemagne, Lex Frisionum, Germanic law, and Salic law

Rogue's gallery - The early literature of crime online
The Brehon Laws
Early British law
Rosemary Horton links page

Medieval legal history
Site contains information on Ancient Legal Sources, General Legal History, Roman Law
Medieval law
Law : English common law - Links to resources
Legal History Research Links

Medieval Sourcebook: Medieval Legal History

4. Elizabethan 1450-1750
Print Resources

Day, Nancy. Your travel guide to renaissance Europe. 940.21 DAY

Emerson, Kathy Lynn. The writer's guide to everyday life in Renaissance England from 1485-1649. 942.05 EME
Salgado, Gamini. The Elizabethan underworld. 364.9421 SAL

Life in London
General overview of life in Victorian times – not specifically from point of view of crime & punishment.

The poor in Elizabethan England

The poor in Elizabethan England. Those who had fallen on hard times saw a great increase in crime. Punishment was very severe
Crime and punishment in Elizabethan England
Good encyclopaedic style article
Recent Elizabethan laws
Everyday life in Elizabethan England

Includes links to Bloody painful; crime and punishment in Elizabethan England; Crime and punishment; Torture and punishment
Origins and growth of parliament
Elizabethan crime and punishment
Student site with some interesting links

5. Industrial revolution - 1750-1900
Print Resources
Tobias, J.J. Crime and industrial society in the 19th century. 364.942 TOB

Quotations from the first part of The Insitutes of The Laws of England, by Sir Edward Cloke
England: a narrative history
The Age of Empire, the growth of the Commons

Proceedings of the Old Bailey 1674-1834

Searchable database **great
Modern History Sourcebook: Beccaria: Crimes and Punishments
Crime and punishment

Includes images and extracts from documents
Elizabeth Fry
Includes images
Origins and growth of parliament
Making sense of English law enforcement in the 18th century
Very dry essay for students

6. Ancient India and China
Print resources

Fitzgerald, C.P. China: a short cultural history. 951 FIT
Gernet, Jacques. Daily life in China on the eve of the Mongol invasion. 951.02 GER
Hook, Brian (ed.). The Cambridge encyclopedia of China. 951.003 CAM
"Law", in Encyclopedia of Asian history. v.2. REF 950.03 ENC
Murowchick, Robert E. China: ancient culture, modern land. 951 CHI Reischauer, Edwin O. & John K. Fairbank. East Asia: the great tradition. 950 REI
Robinson, Francis. The Cambridge encyclopedia of India. 954.052 CAM

The Ancient World

India, Hinduism and religious rebellion to 480BCE

The rise of Ancient China

7. Aboriginal Tribal Law
Print resources
Hazlehurst, Kayleen M. Crime and justice : an Australian textbook in criminology. 364.994 CRI
Horton, David. The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia : Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history, society and culture. REF 994 ENC Vol.1 A-L
Lynn, Peter. From Pentonville to Pentridge : a history of prisons in Victoria. 365.9945 LYN
Mukherjee, Satyanshu K. Crime and justice in Australia. 364.994 MUK
O'Toole, Sean, Australian corrections. 364.60994 OTO
Philips, David. A Nation of rogues? : crime, law and punishment in colonial Australia. 364.994 NAT
Smith, William Ramsay. Aborigine : myths and legends. 298 SMI
Tucker, Alan. Iron in the blood : convicts and commandants in colonial Australia. 365.92 TUC
Victory, Michael. End of the line : capital punishment in Australia. 364.66 VIC

The recognition of Aboriginal Customary Laws Summary Report

Extensive legal document

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Electoral Timeline

Pre-contact Aboriginal Society

Short overview

The Madayin

Traditional law of the Yolngu (Aboriginal people of North East Arnhem Land).
Aborignal Resource and Development Services Inc. Information Paper No. 7.

Koorie Studies

Catholic Education Office

The Mardudjara Aborigines
: Living the dream in Australia’s desert, by Robert Tokinson
Search AustLII
Search term “aboriginal customary law”

Indigenous law resources

The Indigenous Portal provides online access to Indigenous services and information located on government Internet sites.

The recognition of Aboriginal customary laws - Summary report

Full report http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/alrc/custlaw2/

The Indigenous Portal provides online access to Indigenous services and information located on government Internet sites
Law and justice fact sheet
Indigenous law and justice

Records of the Aboriginal Legal Service of Western Australia
Reconciliation and social justice library